On your very first flight you will take the controls and learn about the effects of those controls. (Don't worry, all training aircraft have dual controls so the instructor can help you out) You will gain a good understanding of what the engine, ailerons, rudder, elevator and flaps do and how each also influences the other.
From there you will go on to a number of exercises in the training area: learning to keep the aircraft straight and level, climb and descent, normal and steep turns and some emergency procedures. One lesson is spent on each of these, but as you are flying the aircraft all the time, the others will come into play in all lessons too; you can't get to the training area for straight and level practice without making a few turns!
Then it is time to hit the circuit. the pattern aircraft fly around the airfield on take-off, approach and landing. These are often called 'touch and goes' literally going around in close proximity to the airfield practising and perfecting all your new skills.
And after you reach a good enough standard and can consistently land the aircraft unassisted by your instructor, it is time for... Your first solo!